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Squeeze-outs and Freeze-outs in a Closely Held Business

Forms of Minority Shareholder Oppression in Texas

Because of the nature of the business structure in a closely held corporation, it’s not uncommon for conflict to arise between owners, often leading to oppression of minority shareholders. A closely held company is typically controlled by a small number of shareholders or owners, in which possess the majority of the shares. By virtue, the balance of decision-making authority rests in the hands of the majority owners, or a few acting in concrete. This leaves those with a non-controlling interest subject to the discretion of the controlling majority. Since stock in a closely-held corporation is not readily salable, a minority shareholder at odds with management may be vulnerable to shareholder oppression by form of “squeeze-outs” or “freeze-outs”.

  • Squeeze- outs: Minority shareholders are forced to sell their interest in the company at an unfairly low price or receive nothing at all for their interest.
  • Freeze-outs: Majority shareholders render the minority shareholder’s share or ownership meaningless, preventing the shareholder from liquidating his or her investment.

Ultimately, squeeze-outs and freeze-outs are tactics used by majority owners to diminish the value of a minority shareholder’s interest in the business. This can include:

  • Refuse a minority’s access to information about the corporation and from any participation in management
  • Eliminate a minority’s interests altogether
  • Terminate the minority shareholder’s employment
  • Vote the minority off the governing board
  • Divert the minority’s resources (salaries and benefits) to those still under the employ of the business.

Remedies for Minority Shareholder Oppression

In the past, those affected by shareholder oppression could resolve their dispute through way of a shareholder oppression claim. In 2014, this dramatically changed after the Texas Supreme Court ruling in Ritchie V. Rupe. In its ruling, the court declined to recognize a common law cause of action for shareholder oppression. What this means for shareholders is - in most cases you may no longer sue majority shareholders for oppression or a forced buy-out without a written agreement in place. According to the Texas Supreme Court in Ritchie v. Rupe: “Shareholders of closely-held corporations may address and resolve such difficulties by entering into shareholder agreements that contain buy-sell, first refusal, or redemption provisions that reflect their mutual expectations and agreements.”

Nonetheless, despite this ruling, with creative, experienced legal counsel, remedies may still be available for shareholder oppression claims and defenses.

At Hendershot, Cannon, Martin & Hisey, our business practice spans two decades and includes experience with legal issues from business formation through complex shareholder dispute litigation. We have the knowledge and experience to assess and advise you on your shareholder oppression options and all paths to dispute resolution including:

In addition, our business attorneys regularly review, draft and implement shareholder and partnership agreements which can prevent future conflict from arising by establishing and defining rights of both majority and minority shareholders within a corporate structure.

Benefits of a Shareholder agreement includes:

  • Roles of majority and minority shareholders in corporate decision-making and operations
  • Shareholder obligations and commitments
  • Shareholder oppression prevention measures.
  • Procedures to designate, replace, or remove corporate directors and officers
  • Options for removal of potentially harmful or otherwise undesirable shareholders
  • Stipulations for dealing with buyout offers and events likely to impact corporate ownership and control
  • Assignment of, or the informed decision not to provide, tagalong rights, drag-along rights, pre-emptive rights, push-pull provisions, and others
  • Development of non-compete agreements or other contracts if needed
  • Establishing a method to determine the value of share in advance to prevent shareholder disputes
  • Protection of clients’ intellectual property and trade secrets

To Schedule a Consultation with our award-winning business legal team, call (713) 909-7323or contact us online 24/7.

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